July 5th, 1864
In the early morning hours, General Johnston and the Army of Tennessee, retreat from the Smyrna Line and fell back to the last line of previously prepared fortifications before the Chattahoochee River. Known as the River Line, it was conceived and constructed by Brigadier General Francis Asbury Shoup, Chief of Artillery for the Army of Tennessee. The River Line had a new style of fortification in the line, they were called a Shoupade. They were diamond shaped forts built with two of the angles sticking out ahead of the line. The Shoupades were placed anywhere from 60 to 175 yards apart depending on the terrain and were connected by earthworks that intersected the Shoupade roughly in the center. The angled section in front of the line from two adjoining Shoupades, allowed for a crossfire on an advancing enemy. Each Shoupade could hold 80 soldiers shoulder to shoulder. They were also constructed to withstand an extended artillery barrage. The Confederates occupied this line until the night of July the 9th, when the retreated across the river.
These images are from the northern half of the river line. Tomorrow I will post images from the southern half of the river line.