November 13th, 1864

November 13th, 1864

Sherman and his staff continue on toward Atlanta.  They move south from Allatoona and passed through Acworth.  All but a few homes in Acworth were destroyed.  Major Connolly described it as “a heap of ruins”.  Many officers were unable to or perhaps unwilling to stop the destructive and plundering nature of the soldiers under their command.  As Sherman and his staff approached Marietta, they passed through some of the earthworks that had been abandoned during the summer.  As they traveled they were able to see large, black columns of smoke coming form Marietta.  General Kilpatrick and his cavalry were in the town.  Guards had been posted to prevent Arson and looting, but were not able to do so and some officers were greatly disturbed by the unauthorized burning of the town.  While in Marietta, Sherman reviewed General Kilpatrick’s command.  He rode past and reviewed 5000 cavalry and at the end he took up a position to watch as they all road past cheering their General.  The business district of the town around the square had been burned and destroyed.

 

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Much of Acworth was destroyed by the time Sherman made his way through and as the last trains passed through the tracks were rendered useless.
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The Marietta Square saw a great deal of action during the civil war.  As Sherman’s troops were preparing to leave, some of them began burning the town.  Only a few period buildings remain.
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Marietta has grown into a large suburb of Atlanta and is known for hosting special events on the town square.
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Suburbanites not soldiers now fill the streets as they shop at the Saturday morning Farmers Market.
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The Marietta Museum of History in the historic Kennesaw House, is one of the few surviving period structures in the downtown business district.  At one time it functioned as a hotel and several of Andrew’s Raiders stayed here before stealing a train.  During the later part of the war, it functioned as a hospital for soldiers of both sides.
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July 3rd, 1864

July 3rd, 1864:

General Sherman entered Marietta and established his headquarters in the Kennesaw House and ordered his forces to continue the pursuit of the Confederates and attempt to engage them no matter what the cost of men and material.  They must press their advantage while the Confederates are retreating.

The Kennesaw House saw many uses during the war.  Early in the war, Andrews and a few of conspirators, stayed here the night before they stole a train attempted to destroy the railroad that was supplying the Confederate Army.  It was also used as a hospital at one point as well as a Sherman’s Headquarters.  Now it is a museum well worth the visit.

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Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, 24 Gun Battery

During the attack on Kennesaw Mountain the Federals set an artillery battery containing 24 guns in total.  It was located on a low rise near the base of Big Kennesaw Mountain.  These images are from the 24 gun battery which is protected by the National Park.

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Just in side the tree line of this low rise near the base of Kennesaw Mountain is the Federal 24 gun battery.
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Remnants of one of the parapet walls at the 24 gun battery.
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The gun notch is still slightly visible in the remnants of this parapet wall.
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A view looking down the line of earthworks for the 24 gun battery.  Four separate emplacements are visible along this line.
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Looking from the rear of the emplacement in the direction the gun would have faced.

Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Pigeon Hill

With so many locations in connection with the battlefield at Kennesaw Mountain, I am going to make several more post over the next few days with more images.  There were just too many to include in yesterdays post.  Today’s images will focus on Pigeon Hill.

On the morning of June 27th, Federals under the command of General McPherson attacked the Confederate line in the area of Pigeon Hill and Little Kennesaw north east of Cheatham’s Hill.  The Federals quickly overran some Confederate pickets and rifle pits located ahead of the main line, but were quickly stalled by the well entrenched Confederates of French’s Division, which held Little Kennesaw and Pigeon Hill.  The Confederates well entrenched with plenty of large boulders and rocks used as cover in their earthworks.  At one point the Confederates were even rolling boulders and large down on the attacking Federals.  French’s Division also held the advantage of the higher ground thus forcing the Federals to attack up steep inclines that had been heavily covered with entanglements by the men of French’s Division.  The attacking Federals were repulsed and forced to retreat to low valley between Little Kennesaw and Pigeon Hill where they were trapped by musket and cannon fire for hours.  They were finally able to retreat back to their lines after darkness fell upon the battlefield.

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A monument to fallen Federals stands in a field near starting point of the Federal assault on Pigeon Hill. 
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The hiking trail up to Pigeon Hill and Little Kennesaw follows the route that Federal soldiers took during the attack.  Look to where the trail appears to end(but really turns left).  You will the what are the remains of Confederate earthworks just as the attacking Federals would have seen.
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Remnants of Confederate Earthworks on Pigeon Hill.  These are some of the first entrenchments that were encountered by the Federal assault.
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Remains of Confederate earthworks on Pigeon Hill near the spot where George Barnard made an image of the battlefield in the fall of 1864.
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A line of Confederate works on top of Pigeon Hill near the lower portion of Little Kennesaw. Notice the large boulders further down the line and the slope as goes do to the right where the Federals were trapped until nightfall.
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More Confederate works with large boulders included into the line.
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Looking down the slope the Federals tried to make an attack from.  During the battle the Federals were forced to retreat further down this small valley until the could make it back to their lines under the cover of darkness.
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This is a period image captured by photographer George Barnard in the early fall of 1864 as he traveled to Atlanta to photograph the campaign.
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Here is the same location photographed by George Barnard only 150 years later.  Notice the large oddly shaped stone in the foreground of each image.

The Battle of Kolb’s Farm

June 22, 1864:  The Battle of Kolb’s Farm

On orders from General Sherman, General Schofield’s Army of the Ohio, was advancing down the Powder Springs Road in the direction of Marietta.  Schofield was attempting to go around the left end of the Confederate flank.  General Johnston recognized this threat and on the 21st he sent Hood from his right flank to the left in an attempt to neutralize the threat.  In the late afternoon of the 22nd, Hood’s Corps met Schofied’s Army of the Ohio near the Kolb Farm.  Hood initiated an attack without permission from his commander, General Johnston, and he did not bother to do any reconnaissance of the terrain or the force he was engaging.  He unknowingly ordered an advance on a superior enemy force that was entrenched on the high ground.  After suffering about 1000 casualties, Hood retreated and dug in.  He was successful in stopping Schofield from turning the Confederate left flank, but was foolish in making his assault.

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The Kolb Farm House.  Owned by the Park Service, this restored period home is sometimes used as living quarters for park rangers.  It was once a major landmark on the battlefield with its namesake. 
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 Looking west down the Powder Springs Road a period road still in use today.  The Kolb House is across the intersection in the trees.  The Federals and Confederates were positioned in lines that ran roughly North to South on both sides of the road.  The Federals would have been attacking for the distance and moving toward the camera position.  The Confederates would have been moving from the east (behind the camera) toward the Federals in the west.
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Much of the landscape has changed in the last 150 years, but during the Battle of Kolb’s Farm this area would have been part of the Federal line and saw a significant amount of action.
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A subdivision now sits where soldiers once stood.  The Federal lines were on the hillside to the left of the frame.
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Cheatham Hill Road.  The line of battle roughly follows this road and the Confederates attacked across the road from the right side of the frame towards the left.
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The McAdoo House, which sits behind the Kroger in a previous image, is one of the few remaining homes that survived the Battle of Kolb’s Farm and the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain.  It sits atop a low ridge the Federals established their line along during the Battle of Kolb’s Farm.
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 The Cheney House is a period home that survived the Civil War and is now home to apartments for “Senior Living”.  General Schofield made his headquarters here during the Battle of Kolb’s Farm and throughout the remaining operations around Kennesaw Mountain.  He occupied the home June 22 – June 30 and was visited here by General Sherman on the 23rd and the 25th of June. 

June 19th, 1864

June 19th, 1864

The Confederates are entrenched on the Kennesaw Mountain line and have multiple artillery pieces to the top of Little Kennesaw and Big Kennesaw.  It took 100 soldiers to move each cannon up the mountain.  Skirmishing continues all along the line, Federal and Confederate Artillery Batteries begin dueling back and forth.  General Sherman has ordered General Schofield’s Army of The Ohio to move from Lost Mountain, via the Sandtown Road, thus swinging the Federal right over Mud Creek and toward the south western portion of Kennesaw Mountain.  On the evening of the 19th, Schofield reaches Nose’s Creek, about half way between Mud Creek and Kennesaw Mountain.

Video:  Artillery Demonstration at the top of Big Kennesaw Mountain during the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain.

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A cannon now sitting silently atop Big Kennesaw Mountain in the original earthworks.  The park service has protected the artillery pieces and earthworks here with a split rail fence.
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Remnant of the period road that soldiers used to drag the cannons up to the top of Kennesaw Mountain.  It took 100 soldiers to drag each cannon to the top.
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An artillery piece sits atop Little Kennesaw Mountain in what is called “Fort McBride”.
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Earthworks and cannon at Fort McBride, Little Kennesaw Mountain.
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Looking down the barrel of a big gun.  Ft. McBride, Little Kennesaw Mountain.
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Part of Kennesaw Mountains extensive trail system snake behind the parapets and cannons where Confederate soldiers once fought bitterly against the attacking Union Army.

150 Years Ago Today: November 13th, 1864

November 13th, 1864
     Sherman and his staff continue on toward Atlanta.  They move south from Allatoona and pass through Acworth.  All but a few home in Acworth were destroyed.  Major Connolly described it as “a heap or ruins”.  Many officers were unable to or perhaps unwilling to stop the destructive and plundering nature of the soldiers under their command.  As Sherman and his staff approached Marietta, they passed through some of the earthworks that had been abandoned during the summer.  As they traveled they were able to see large, black columns of smoke coming form Marietta.  General Kilpatrick and his cavalry were in the town.  Guards had been posted to prevent Arson and looting, but were not able to do so.  Some officers were greatly disturbed by the unauthorized burning of the town.  While in Marietta, Sherman reviewed General Kilpatricks command.  He rode past and reviewed 5000 cavalry and at the end he took up a position to watch as they all road past cheering their General.  The business district of the town around the square had been burned and destroyed.