July 21st, 1864

July 21, 1864:

Heavy fighting took place along the eastern approach to Atlanta.  Wheeler’s Cavalry were engaged with Blair’s XVII Corps along area near Moreland Ave.  Cleburne was in a desperate fight with Leggett’s 3rd Division of Blair’s XVII Corps, for control of “Bald Hill”.  A prominent hill within artillery range of the city.  Now located at Moreland and I-20, most of the hill, now called “Leggett’s Hill”, is gone due to the construction of I-20.

After his defeat at the Battle of Peachtree Creek on the 20th, Hood has started shifting his forces further to the east in an effort to engage McPherson and Schofield.  In an attempt to attack McPerson’s left flank and his rear, he sends Hardee on a 16 mile long night march heading south and east to link up with Cleburne and assault the Federal flank east of Atlanta.  Hardee begins his marches down Peachtree Street near Peachtree and Spring St.  He heads south through Five Points and turn in a south easterly direction and moved to a point near the north side of the South River.  Here he turned up the Fayetteville Road and the move onward to Bouldercrest Road.  As he turned north on Bouldercrest he reached a fork in the road and divided his forces, with Cleburne’s and Maney’s Divisions taking Bouldercrest to Flat Shoals Road and then Walker and Bate’s Divisions moving up the Fayetteville Road.

Two divisions of Wheeler’s Cavalry, after roughly an hours rest from the days intense fighting, are sent way around the Federal left flank in an attempt to reach the Federal rear in Decatur and destroy the McPherson’s wagon trains.

_DSC0013.bw
WSB TV, site of Atlanta’s Outer Defenses.  After a failed assault at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hardee’s Corps fell back to the position where they started their assault and after a hard day of fighting, they moved from their works and mustered a couple hundred yards away near Preachtree St. and Spring St. to being their 16 mile long forced night march.
_DSC0017.bw
After marching down Peachtree st. and through 5 points, Hardee’s Corps continued to march south down Capitol Ave. and onto what is not Hank Aaron Dr, passing the location of Turner field, were Confederate Artillery batteries were once positioned.
_DSC0033.bw
Hardee’s Corps continued to march down Hank Aaron Dr, which was then called McDonough Blvd.  They would have marched down the road to camera right and made a left turn, then marched toward the camera.
_DSC0042.bw.1
McDonough Blvd. at Jonesboro Rd.  The march continued down McDonough Blvd. taking the left fork to stay headed east.
_DSC0060.bw
Hardee continued marching further and further into the night attempting to be in position by dawn, but march, consisting of close to 18,000 soldiers, was painfully slow.  They would have passed through the area of the Federal Penitentiary.
_DSC0095.bw
McDonough Blvd. at Moreland Ave.  Hardee’s soldiers marched along this road and turned right on to what is now Moreland Ave and marched south to a point near the south river.
_DSC0135.bw
The Starlight Drive In, a local landmark, now sits to the side of a road where Hardee’s Corps passed in the late night and early morning hours of July 21st – 22nd.
_DSC0138.bw
After marching to a point just north of the South River, Hardee turned his troops north up Fayetteville Road. 
_DSC0192.bw
At dawn on the 22nd of July, 1864, Hardee’s Column stopped here at Intrenchment Creek.  Here once stood the home and mill of WM Cobb.  Hardee needed local guides for the remainder of his march as he and his officers were not familiar with the area.  Mr. Cobb and his Miller, named Case Turner, agreed to guide Hardee’s columns to positions for their attack on the Federal left flank.  Now a water treatment plant occupies the site.
_DSC0223.bw
After continuing on from Intrenchment Creek, the column marched on Fayetteville road (now Key Rd) to the intersection with Bouldercrest Road and turned left.  They continued up Bouldercrest Road to the fork with Fayetteville Road.  With Cleburne’s and Maney’s Divisions taking the left fork (Bouldercrest Rd) and moved up to Flat Shoals Rd where they eventually assaulted the Federals in the area of Bald Hill.  The right fork (Fayetteville Rd.) was taken by Walker and Bate’s divisions.

 

_DSC0241.bw.1
Terry’s Mill Pond.  Case Turner guided Walker and Bate’s Divisions up the Fayetteville Rd. to Sugar Creek.  At this point, against the advise of Mr. Turner, Walker’s Division turned north and moved off the road to travel up the west side of the creek and Bate’s followed suit moving up the east side of the creek.  Mr. Turner warned them of the difficult and swampy terrain around Tom Terry’s Mill pond.  Their advance was significantly delayed due to this obstacle.  The mill pond is gone now, but one existed in the low ground inside this tree line.  A community garden now exist on this site at the intersection of Terry Mill Rd and Glenwood Rd.
_DSC0250.bw
Glenwood and I-20.  The northern end of Terry’s Mill Pond was near this point and in the trees to camera left.  The main assault of the Confederates began from this area at 12:15pm.  As the assault was to begin, General Walker moved up to the front of his Division to survey the terrain.  As he brought his field glasses up to his eyes, he was shot dead by a Federal Sharpshooter. 

 

The Battle of Peachtree Creek

July 20th, 1864:

As Hood prepares for his first tactical engagement since taking command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, he is hoping that General Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland has been unable to prepare any earthworks since crossing Peachtree Creek.  Hood is also having to keep an eye on McPherson and Schofield as they advance from Decatur toward Atlanta.  The attack is planned for 1:00pm, but for various reasons it does not commence until 4:00pm.

Hood has deployed Stewart’s Corps (formerly commanded by the late Lt. Gen. L. Polk) to his left.  Stewart’s Corps consist of French’s Division on the far left connecting to the Western and Atlantic Railroad near Casey’s Hill in the current Crestlawn Cemetery and extending east and connecting to Walthall’s Division, which sits astride Howell Mill Road.  Walthall’s right extends toward the east and connects with Loring’s Division between Howell Mill and Northside Drive.  Hood had deployed Hardee’s Corps to the center.  Hardee had placed Maney’s Division to the left of his line followed by Walker’s Division in the center and Bate’s Division to the right.  Hardee held Cleburne’s Division in reserve.  Hood, fearing an attack by McPherson on the east side of Atlanta, placed Cheatham on the far right of the Confederate line.  Cheatham is commanding Hood’s former Corps.  Hood’s plan is to attack “en echelon”.  Starting with Bate’s Division on the right attacking first and then each subsequent Division attacking one after the other.  This was done in an effort to turn the enemy flank and push them back to Peachtree Creek and the Chattahoochee River.

Thomas had most of his army across the creek by noon.  Palmer’s XIV Corps had been placed on the right and had been able to entrench as they had been across the creek earlier.  Hooker’s XX Corps was forming up in the center and Howard’s IV Corps was forming on the left.  Newton’s Division of Howard’s Corps held the far left.

Late in the morning Hood received word from Wheeler, who commanded the cavalry attempting to hold the east side of Atlanta, that he was out numbered by McPherson and Schofiled who were moving toward the Atlanta from Decatur.  Hood decided to shift his entire army to the east by a mile in order to support Wheeler should he need it.  The orders were given and the movements were made, but through miscommunication and human error the shift to the right (east) was nearly two miles.  This cost the Confederates time and delayed their attack until 4pm.

When the attack finally began, Bate’s Division was the first to move forward and should have been the first to make contact, but the terrain in their front had not been reconnoitered prior to the assault.  Because of this they did not know where they were going and did not know where the enemy was.  They ran into a heavy thicket and swampy area that greatly hindered their progress as they were attempting to find Newton’s Division.

By 4:30pm the “en echelon” advance had made its way down the line to Loring’s Division.  In the area between present day Northside Drive and Walthall Street, Scott’s Brigade of Loring’s Division made one of the most successful assaults of the day.  They captured the colors of the 33rd New Jersey as well as part of the regiment.  They continued pressing their assault and nearly turn Geary’s flank, but the lack of support on either of Scott’s flanks, forced him to fall back.

The day was filled with heavy, fierce fighting on both sides.  By late afternoon, Loring believed he could exploit a gap in the Federal lines between Newton and Geary.  He asked Hardee for reinforcements and as Hardee was about to send Cleburne’s Division to assist Loring, he received an order from Hood to send a Division to the east of the city to support Wheeler.  Hardee sent Cleburne’s Division to Wheeler, thus preventing another push forward to the Federal lines.  The day ended with many dead, dying and wounded still on the battlefield.  The high priced neighborhoods of the area now stand in stark contrast to the harsh reality of the battle that took place there 152 years ago today.

_DSC0310.bw
Knipe’s and Robinson’s Brigades of William’s Division of Hooker’s 20th Corps, were positioned along the high ground to the right of this image taken along Norfleet Rd.  To the left of the image is a deep ravine that had to be traversed by the attacking Confederates.  This area was the western most portion of the Federal line that came under direct assault during the Battle of Peachtree Creek.
_DSC6133.bw
This deep ravine now sits between Norfleet Rd. to the right, where the Federals were positioned on high ground, and Springlake Dr.  Reynold’s Brigade of Walthall’s Division of Stewart’s Corp(CS) attacked through this deep ravine and pushed forward attempting to push Knipe’s and Robinson’s Brigades back.  After a failed second attempt under enfilading artillery fire and with only the support part of Selden’s Alabama Battery, Reynold’s was forced to withdraw from the assault.
_DSC0343.bw
Near the intersection of Collier Road and Howell Mill, at the south western end of the ravine, the Selden’s Alabama Battery was placed in support of Reynold’s assault.  While directing the placement of the battery Major William C. Preston was killed in action by Federal fire. Major Preston is the “Willie” Preston featured in Mary Chestnut’s “A Diary From Dixie”
_DSC0280.bw
Bobby Jones Golf Course at the Bittsy Grant Tennis Center.  The right of Geary’s Division of Hooker’s 20th Corps was positioned along the high ground of this ridge on the golf course.  O’Neal’s Brigade of Wathall’s Division(CS) was on the right of Reynold’s Brigade and pushed through at shallower portion of the ravine and attempted to exploit a gap between Williams and Geary.  Geary’s line was pushed back until his right met Williams left forming a re-entrant angle in the Federal line.  O’Neal split the Brigade with half swinging left to attack Williams and the other half swinging right to turn Geary’s right flank.  Fierce fighting ensued and with lack of numbers and artillery support, O’Neal eventually withdrew.
_DSC0276.bw
Bittsy Grant Tennis Center.  Looking toward the Confederate lines.  O’Neal’s Brigade would have crossed this area in their assault on Geary’s and Williams lines.
_DSC0168.bw
Tanyard Creek Park, a historian and reenactor gives a lecture to a tour group on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Peachtree Creek.  General Loring’s Division of Stewarts Corps(CS), came across this ground moving from the background toward the camera position to attack elements of Geary’s and Ward’s Divisions (US), which were positioned behind the camera on the high ground near present day Collier Rd.
_DSC0214.bw
Tanyard Branch in Tanyard Branch Park.  Heavy fighting ensued here as Loring’s Division(CS) pushed hard in their attack on elements of Geary’s and Ward’s Division’s(US).
_DSC0197.bw
Eastern portion of Tanyard Creek Park.  Portions of Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division (CS), advanced through this area, crossing the creek (camera right),under heavy fire from Geary’s (US) artillery and moving towards the high ground along present day Collier Road. 
_DSC0160.bw
Ardmore Road looking toward Collier Road.  The right of Featherston’s Brigade advanced down the slope for their trenches nearly a mile behind the camera position, to attack Coburn’s and Wood’s Brigades of Ward’s Divison  (US).  Featherston’s Brigade drove back the Federal skirmishers and pushed passed the barricades the skirmishers used to assault the main line.  They gained some ground but were forced back to the abandoned barricades as they were counter attacked along their front and flank.
_DSC0139.bw
28th St. at Wycliff Rd. looking toward’s Peachtree Street.  28th St. dead ends into Ardmore where the previous image was made.  The Old Montgomery Ferry Road crossed through this spot and intersected Peachtree Road slightly south of Palisades Rd.  Brig. General Clement H. Stevens (CS) was killed in action here as he ordered the withdraw of his Brigade.  Steven’s Brigade was part of Walker’s Division of Hardee’s Corps.
_DSC6092.bw
Battle of Peachtree Creek memorial.  This memorial, shaded by Oaks and Magnolias, rest on a small knoll between Peachtree Road and Piedmont Hospital.  Kimball’s Brigade of Newton’s Division, Howard’s 4th Corps (US) was positioned here on this high ground astride Peachtree Road.  They were assaulted by Walker’s Divisions of Hardee’s Corps (CS).
_DSC0085.bw
Dale Way Park now sits on the battlefield once crossed by Bate’s Division of Hardee’s Corps (CS).  Bate’s Division was the far right of the Confederate assault on the Federal lines at Peachtree Creek.  Bate’s was the first to move from his works to begin the assault with each successive Division move forward one after the other.  Bate’s assault was delayed as the whole Confederate line had been shifted to the right by nearly two miles.  Initially, the line was supposed to move only a mile to the right in order to be in position to reinforce Wheeler’s Cavalry east of Atlanta should McPherson and Schofield attack.  Miscommunication lead to shift of two miles and as such, when Bate’s made his advance on two Brigades of Newton’s Division (US), he did so across terrain that had not been reconnoitered.  Bate’s advance was slow due to heavy thickets and swampy areas in the Clear Creek Valley.
_DSC0013.bw
WSB TV, West Peachtree St. near Inwood Cir.  The Confederates outer defensive line of Atlanta was placed on the high ground here and extended westward along various hills and ridges to present day Crest Lawn Cemetery where it terminated at Casey’s Hill along the Western Atlantic Railroad.  Walker and Bate’s Divisions both started their assault on the Federals from this defensive line.  This view is looking south toward the Confederate line.
_DSC0042.bw
West Peachtree at Inwood Cir.  WSB TV.  Looking north toward Federal Positions from the Confederates outer defensive line of Atlanta.  Walker’s and Bate’s Divisions(CS) would have advanced down this slope crossing the area that is now Buford Hwy and I-85 and then moving up through what is now the Brookwood Hills neighborhood, to assault part of Newton’s Division (US) that were positioned along the high ground in the area of present day Brighton Road.

June 18th, 1864

June 18th, 1864

Heavy fighting happened today around the Latimer Farm portion of the Brushy Mountain – Mud Creek Line.  The Marietta Country Club now sits on the former site of the Latimer Farm.  The Confederate lines around the Latimer Farm formed a Salient angle, often called Hardee’s Salient, it was vulnerable to enfilading fire.  Confederate positions were under near constant bombardment from Federal artillery positions no more than 1200 yards away.  Three Federal Divisions, under the command of General Thomas, attacked the three Confederate Brigades at the Salient. The Union troops pushed the Confederate skirmishers back to their main lines and Federal troops soon occupied a trench line in front of the Salient.  Once this line was occupied by the Federal troops, General Johnston realized the chances of the being overrun were high.  On the night of the 18th, he ordered the evacuation of the line and the Confederate line then moved back to the famous Kennesaw Mountain Line.

_DSC0195.bw
 Remnants of Confederate earthworks that were used during the Battle of Latimer’s Farm.  Now located within the Barrett’s Green Subdivision, they were preserved in the local SCV Camp McDonald in conjunction with the builder.  This area was under a near constant artillery bombardment.
_DSC0421.bw
While hard to discern due to the undergrowth, this images shows a line of several Federal artillery positions.  The are called Lunettes.  It is rare to have some so well preserved and these have been protected on private property.  The property is now being developed into a subdivision and the Lunettes are being protected through the work of the local SCV Camp McDonald and the developer.
_DSC0435.bw
Remnants of Federal earthworks located on the same property as the Lunettes above. 
_DSC0507.bw
Efforts by the local SCV Camp McDonald and the developer to prevent the destruction of the remaining earthworks.
_DSC0078.bw
This shallow depression is all that remains of this section of Confederate earthworks in the area of Hardee’s Salient.  They are located on private property that has been farmed for sometime.
_DSC0115.bw
The small collection of minie balls found on the property of a farmer who owns the property where the previous image was taken.  He grew up on the family farm and still lives there today and as a teenager he claimed to have found a 55 gallon drums worth of minie balls in the fields which he sold to collectors.  Look close and you may see one with teeth marks…
_DSC0129.bw
 Now covered with trees and thick underbrush, these remnants of Confederate earthworks, that were part of Hardee’s Salient, now sit quietly behind a local church.

Death of the Fighting Bishop

June 14th, 1864

Being concerned that the position of Bate’s Division on Pine Mountain was quickly becoming compromised, Confederate Generals Johnston, Polk and Hardee, rode to the top of the mountain on the morning of the 14th.  As the Generals were inspecting the position, they were observed by members of a Federal artillery battery located about a mile to the north east of the mountain.  This was the 5th Indiana Battery.  They observed what appeared to be officers on the mountain and opened fire.  The first round buried it’s self in the parapet of the Confederate position and the second round struck General Leonidas Polk in the chest killing him instantly.  Polk, also called the Bishop General was the Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana and was greatly revered by his men.  His death struck a serious blow to the Confederacy.

Later on the 14th, Federal forces attacked Pine Mountain in an attempt to cut it off from the main Brushy Mountain Lost Mountain line.  Pine Mountain formed a salient in the Confederate lines and was just over a mile to the north of the main line.  The Federals pushed hard to cut Pine Mountain off from their main line, but were repeatedly repulsed by the well entrenched and fortified positions of the Confederates of Bate’s Division.  General Johnston ordered Bate’s Division to with draw from the position on the night of the 14th under the cover of darkness.

CMB_0002.bw
Location on top of Pine Mountain were General Leonidas Polk was fatal struck by an artillery round from the 5th Indiana Battery
_DSC0059.bw
Remnants of the parapet the took the first round from the 5th Indiana Battery. 
CMB_0005.bw
Earthworks atop Pine Mountain.  These were manned by Bate’s Division.

_DSC0033.bw
Now located behind a church, this is the position of the 5th Indiana Battery that fired the fatal shot killing General Leonidas Polk.  It has been turned into a small nature trail for the church.
_DSC0020.bw
Looking through the notch in the parapet wall of the 5th Indiana.  One of the artillery pieces would have fired through this notch in the wall.
_DSC0112.bw
From the 150th anniversary memorial ceremony held on Pine Mountain, June 14th 2014.
CMB_0037.bw
F.D.Polk IV, 3rd Great Grandson of the General Leonidas Polk was present at the memorial service.
CMB_0056.bw
During the memorial service a reenactor was portraying a Reverend and presided over the memorial service.
_DSC0043.bw
Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.

_DSC0089.bw

Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.

_DSC0103.bw

Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.

 

150 Years Ago Today: Dec. 10th – 17th, 1864

Dec. 10th, Sherman begins to lay siege to the defenses of Savannah and artillery exchanges become a frequent occurrence.  In order to keep up a siege, Sherman know he will need supplies and must make contact with the Federal Navy just off the coast. 

Dec. 12th, Kilpatrick is dispatched with his cavalry to locate an assault route to Fort McAllister.  Fort McAllister protects the mouth of the Ogeechee River and must be taken in order for Sherman to begin supplying his army.  After locating and route and informing Sherman, Kilpatrick rides to Midway and makes his headquarters at the Midway Church and then sends forces to Sunbury in an attempt to contact the Federal Fleet.

Dec. 13th, Federal forces overwhelm the garrison at Fort McAllister after a spirited fight the fort is captured.  Sherman watched the assault from a rice mill across the river.  With the Ogeechee River open, supplies begin to flow in to the army.  Sherman has a 1000′ long wharf built at King’s Bridge on the Ogeechee River.  This area is now a park with a boat ramp where the Hwy. 17 crosses the Ogeechee River.

Dec. 17th, General Hardee, commander of the Confederate forces in Savannah, sends a request to Confederate President Jeff Davis for reinforcements from Lee’s Army in Virgina, but receives word that Lee can not spare any troops.  General Sherman, knowing he has the upper hand, sends a request for Hardee’s surrender, but it is rejected by Hardee and the siege continues. 

150 Years Ago Today: Nov. 23 – Nov. 27, 1864

Nov. 23rd, 1864: 
     The Left Wing of Sherman’s army moves into and occupies the Georgia State Capitol of Milledgeville.  At one point, soldiers occupy the state house building and hold a mock session of the legislature.  They have speeches and vote to repeal secession.  General Sherman takes the Governor’s Mansion as his headquarters.  The Governor had taken all the furnishings with him to Macon leaving the mansion empty.  Sherman slept in his bedroll on the floor. 
     The Right Wing reaches the Oconee River north east of Macon.  After passing through McIntyre and Toombsboro they are delayed at Ball’s Ferry by stiff Confederate resistance. 

Nov. 24th, 1864:
     General Kilpatrick takes his cavalry column and leaves the Right Wing and feints toward Augusta with elements of the Left Wing.  General Hardee arrives at Ball’s Ferry to assess the situation.  He decides that their lines must be abandoned and they withdraw during the night. 
     They Left Wing begins to leave Milledgeville and moves through Hebron.

Nov. 25th, 1864:
     The Left Wing begins to move towards Sandersville and begin to meet active Confederate resistance and begin to skirmish almost constantly as they advance.

Nov. 26th, 1864:
     The Right Wing occupies Oconee and have taken the abandoned lines of the Confederates at Ball’s Ferry.  The Left Wing enters Sandersville where they clash with cavalry as the enter town and fight a running skirmish through the town square.  Elements of the Left Wing move out from Sandersville and move toward Tennille and Davisboro. 

Nov. 27th, 1864:
     The Left Wing has reached the Ogeechee River and begins to cross at Fenn’s Bridge.  A series of sharp cavalry battles ensue in the area of Waynesboro when Sherman feints toward Augusta.  The Left Wing also provides support for Kilpatrick as he operates and clashes with Wheeler between Millen and Waynesboro. 
     

150 Years Ago Today: November 22, 1864

November 22, 1864:
     The 20th Corps, part of the Sherman’s Left Wing, reached Milledgeville.  They marched into town past unoccupied Confederate earthworks and were completely unopposed.  Mayor R.B. DeGraffenreid surrendered the town and asked for protection from looting and destruction.  Two regiments camped on the state house grounds and acted as the provost.  They also raised the first U.S. Flag over the state house since the start of the war. 
     The Right Wing fought what is thought to be the largest battle of The March to the Sea at the Battle of Griswoldville.  On the morning of the 22nd, General Hardee dispatched three brigades of Georgia Militia from Macon to August to help defend the city.  Hardee was hoping that the Federal column had already passed and that the militia would be moving behind them and have a clear path to August.  Weather and choked roads, along with delaying actions by Wheelers cavalry, had caused the Right Wing to slow down.  The Militia were under orders to retreat if the encountered any resistance.
     General P.J. Phillips was in command of the Militia, after they marched north east from Macon they met up with the 4th Brigade that had marched out the night before.  They told Gen. Phillips about the skirmishing between Wheeler and the Federals.  Phillips also learned that his detachment outnumbered the Federals and decided to disobey his orders and attempt to overrun the Federal position.  They were to attack across open fields that were nearly 700 yards in distance and try to reach a deep ravine about 100 yards from the Federal lines.  The Federals were caught off guard by the attack as it came unexpectedly, but they quickly regrouped and formed up for a fight. 
     The Militia, made up of old men and young boys, made a concerted, if not confused, effort to attack the Federal position.  Many of the Militia had never seen combat, some fired on their own men by mistake, some even attacked in the wrong direction.  The battle hardened veterans of the Federal army opened up with a withering fire from their position and the bodies of the dead and dying Militia were littering the field.  Yet they still advanced, time and time again under the constant fire of the Federals.  The Militia reached within 50 yards of the Federal line before they finally retreated.  The Militia lost 51 men killed and 472 wounded.  The Federals lost 13 men and only had 79 wounded. 

150 Years Ago Today: November 21, 1864

November 21, 1864:
    Parts of the Right Wing of Sherman’s army pass through Gordon and move on east to Irwinton.  Their column stretches out for miles as they choke the roads.  The Left Wing continues to move closer to Milledgeville.  Sherman remarks in his memoirs that they on made 8 miles on this day in a hard, cold, windy day.  That night an uncommon early season snow storm blanketed the army with snow.  The southern civilians accuse the yankees of bringing the cold weather with them.
    General Hardee, in command of the Confederate forces in Georgia, is in Macon where he has been preparing to defend the city.  His scouts have reported that the Federal columns have turned away from Macon and have started on a move eastward.  Hardee now realizes that the Federal objective is most likely Augusta or Savannah.  General Hardee begins to shift his troops as well as Wheelers cavalry to the east in an effort to slow down the Federal Advance. 

150 Years Ago Today: Late September

Late September 1864:
     Sherman has fortified Atlanta extensively and has started to build up supplies and rest his troops.  The Confederates are not sitting idle, and Hood has ordered all the Federal prisoners kept at Andersonville to be moved to different prisons out of the reach of Sherman’s forces.  Hood then shifts his Army from Love Joy’s Station to Palmetto, which lies along the railroad to West Point and further into Alabama.  Hood is resting his troops, building up supplies and making plans for a move to the north to attack Sherman’s supply line.
     Confederate President Davis arrives in Palmetto on September 25th.  The next morning he begins a review of the troops and is greeted with silence, not cheers for their President.  A few soldiers yell out to the President asking for General Johnston to be place back in command, but these remarks fall upon deaf ears.  Bringing Johnston back would be like admitting the he made a mistake in removing him.
     On the 27th, Davis meets will Hood and all his Corps Commanders and some of the Divisional Commanders.  A great deal is discussed including a plan to strike Sherman’s supply and communications lines north of Atlanta, there by cutting him off and forcing him to retreat back to Tennessee, all the while being engaged by Hood.  Hood then thinks he can move on the Federals in Tennessee and turn the tide of the war in the western theater and possibly as a whole.  Hood also complains to Davis about General Hardee and blames the loss at Jonesboro on him.  He ask Davis to remove him.  Davis agrees and Hardee readily accepts the offer to command the coastal defenses of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida.  Hardee is relieved to out from under Hood’s command.  On the 28th, Hood receives word from Davis that he may move forward with his plans to on North.
     On September 29th and 30th, the Confederate Army of Tennessee begins their next march and cross the Chattahoochee River near Palmetto and Campbellton about 40,000 troops.  By late in the evening of October 1st, Hoods army has moved about 8 miles from the river crossing in the direction of Marietta.  Sherman, who had anticipated this move to the north by Hood a week earlier, had already sent troops to Rome and to Chattanooga to help protect those areas from the threat of Hood and from the threat of General Nathan Bedford Forrest cavalry that has started operating in the northern part of Alabama and into Tennessee.

150 Years Ago Today: Sept. 3rd, 1864

Sept. 3rd, 1864:
     General Sherman, having followed Hardee from Jonesboro on the previous day, has formed his troops in a line of battle across from what is left of Hardee’s Corps.  Skirmishing continues throughout the day, buy Sherman does not order an assault.  Just before breakfast, Sherman receives a dispatch from a courier sent by Slocum in Atlanta advising him that they have entered and secured the City of Atlanta and that the remainder of Hood’s forces have evacuated toward Love Joy’s Station via the McDonough Rd.  Sherman, fearing that all of Hood’s forces have reunited, holds off on attacking the Confederates and with his objective “fairly won”, he decides to hold his position a day or two longer and destroy more railroad track, before returning to Atlanta.  Slocum’s entire XX Corps has entered the city and is attempting to restore some semblance of order.