August 7th, 1864

August 7th, 1864:

On the morning of the seventh, the Federals again began to advance on the entrenched Confederates south of Utoy Creek.  They encountered no resistance and found the Confederate works empty.  Bate’s Division was withdrawn from the lines overnight and took their place in the line of defensive works, that stretched from the defensive perimeter around Atlanta, to the southwest in order to protect the railroads in East Point.   Bate’s takes his place between Clayton’s Division on his right (north) and Clerburne’s Division to his left (south).

Sherman, who is displeased with the failure of the movement toward East Point, decides to lay siege to Atlanta and will do his best to run the Confederates out of the city.  He begins to shell the city and considers the city itself as a military target even though there are still civilians within the city.  Many have evacuated, but several thousand have no where to go or have decided to wait it out.

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During the night of August the 6th, Bate(CS), withdrew his Division back to the original lines that had been established to block the Federal movement on East Point.  Bate was aligned with Clayton’s Division(CS) on his right and Cleburne’s Division(CS) on his left.  Here, along this low ridge split by Connally Road, was the far left of the Confederate line manned by elements of Cleburne’s Division(CS).  This ridge line overlooks one of the many forks on the southern side of Utoy Creek.
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Remains of a Confederate trench lie beneath these fallen trees in the woods of Greenwood Cemetery.  As Bate(CS) retired back to the original lines, Clayton’s Division9CS) was here on his right with his lines moving north and east back to Atlanta’s inner defenses.
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English Ivy covers part of the Confederate works that remain in John A. White Park.  These works were staffed by Clayton’s Division(CS).
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The Battle of Utoy Creek day 2

August 6th, 1864:  The Battle of Utoy Creek

This morning, Sherman has accepted the resignation of Palmer, who will be on a train back to Chattanooga by the afternoon, and  the Federals had formed up their lines and everyone was in place to attempt an advance across Utoy Creek towards the railroad in East Point.  With Palmer’s resignation, Robert W. Johnson, a division commander within the XIV Corps, was appointed Commander of the XIV Corps and placed under the command of Schofield.  Displeased with the performance of the XIV Corps on the previous day, Schofield had moved his XXIII Corps to the right of the XIV Corps.  The XXIII Corps is now the Federal right flank and the XIV Corps is the left flank with Logan’s XV Corps in support to their left.  Palmer’s Corp was fanned out in an arch following the current Beecher Road south to Benjamin E. Mays and making a slight turn to the west, just north of Cascade Road.  Palmer’s right ended near Willis Mill Road.  Schofield’s left was adjacent to Palmer’s right with Cox’s Division along Cascade Road and stretching out west.  Hascall’s Division of Schofield’s Corps turn south making a 90 degree turn to the east and was facing the end of the Confederate line at the Confederate left flank.  Just west of Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.

The battle began when Cox’s Division moved south and Hascall’s Division moved east to press the Confederate flank.  The 11th Kentucky Regiment (Federal) of Cox’s Division was at the front of the advancing line and made first contact with the 4th Kentucky (CS), who were posted as skirmishers in front the famed Kentucky Orphan Brigade.  This action happened in the area of the waterfall in what is now Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.  Cox’s attack was repulsed and he suffered a severe loss.  He reformed for another attempt, but was repulsed a second time after which he withdrew from the assault.  Hascall was hindered by the South Fork of Utoy Creek and made minimal gains in his assault.  He did reach the rear of an artillery battery, which withdrew to the east to another position on high ground from which they still had a commanding view.

The XIV Corps, now commanded by Johnson, has sat idle most of the day and did not make an attempt to attack until late afternoon and he only attacked with one division.  He gained no headway and retired before anything larger than a skirmish developed.

The Confederate left flank was manned by Bate’s Division along a ridge line just south of Sandtown Road (Cascade Road).  S. D. Lee’s Division connected to Bate’s right at the Sandtown Road east of what is now Beecher road.  Bate’s left flank was open and vulnerable to attack and on the night of the 6th, Hood ordered Bate’s Division to withdraw from the area back to the Confederate main defensive line.

The Federal assault cost them approximately 800 lives and numerous wounded, while the Confederates lost only 18 soldiers while defending their heavily entrenched and fortified lines.

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Remnants of Federal earthworks manned by Cox’s Division of Schofield’s 23rd Corps(US).  This was near the far left of Cox’s Division as well as the left of the 23rd Corps before it abutted the right of the 14th Corps(US) commanded by Johnson.  Byrd’s Brigade of Cox’s Division held this area.
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Utoy Creek at the bike path inside Lionel Hampton – Beecher Hills Park.  When Cox’s Division(US) advanced on Bate’s Division(CS), which held the ridge just south of the Sandtown Road (Cascade Road), they crossed in this area.  The earthworks the stepped off from were in the previous image and are located a few hundred yards north (right of frame) of the creek on the ridge.
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Utoy Creek at Peyton Road.  The right of Cox’s Division(US) crossed the creek in this area as they advanced on the Bate’s Division(CS) which held the Confederate left flank.
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Hascall’s Division of Schofield’s 23rd Corps(US) advanced south and then made a 90 degree to the east to attack the end of the Confederate left flank which was exposed and vulnerable.  Hascall’s Division was greatly hampered by the thickets of woods and underbrush on the South Fork of Utoy Creek.  Hascall eventually reached the Confederate line with minimal affect, but did cause an artillery battery to withdraw to another position.
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A small water fall inside Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.  It was in this area that the first contact of the Battle of Utoy Creek happened.  The skirmishers of the Federal 11th Kentucky Reg.(US) engaged the the pickets of the 4th Kentucky Reg.(CS) of the famed Confederate Kentucky Orphan Brigade commanded by General Joseph Lewis.  There are several accounts in diaries or letters of soldiers bathing in the creek the day before the battle.
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A Confederate artillery battery inside the Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.  The battery here was commanded by Capt. Houston King and was named the Missouri Horse Artillery Battery.   As Hascall’s Division advanced across the South Fork of Utoy Creek, he forced the battery to withdraw to another position that was more defensible. 
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Confederate earthworks inside the Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.  Lewis’s Kentucky Orphan Brigade of Bate’s Division(CS) held the position on the left end of the Confederate line.  As Cox’s Division(US) attacked the strong entrenchments of the Confederates, they were quickly repulsed.  Cox’s formed his lines for another assault which was subsequently repulsed with heavy losses.  After the second attempt failed to take the Confederate line, Cox withdrew his Division back to their starting point.
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A dead tree across the top of Confederate earthworks gives scale to their current depth.  These works work manned by Lewis’s Kentucky Orphan Brigade of Bate’s Division (CS).  Realizing the fault of the exposed left flank, General Hood ordered the Corps commander, General S. D. Lee to withdraw Bate’s Division back to the main Confederate line on the night of the 6th.
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Smith’s Brigade of Bate’s Division held this ridge line here south of the Sandtown Road, now Cascade Road.  This view is looking from Cascade Rd. (formerly Sandtown Rd.) to the south and up at the ridge line on Woodland Terrace.  Byrd’s Brigade of Cox’s Division(US), which constituted the left of Cox’s Division, attacked Smith’s Division along this ridge line where they met stiff resistance from the heavily fortified Confederate positions.
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Looking west along Cascade Road, formerly Sandtown Road.  The Confederates of Bate’s Division(CS) held the high ground south(left) of the road and in this area Byrd’s Brigade of Cox’s Division(US) crossed the road to attack Smith’s Brigade of Cox’s Division(CS).
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Known as Cascade Mansion, this home, now a special events facility, was built by Dr. William Poole, who later became a Confederate surgeon in the 57th Ga. Infantry.  Construction began in 1860, but due to the war, it was not completed until 1870.  During the Battle of Utoy Creek, General Bate’s(CS) used the partially finished home as his headquarters while commanding his troops.  After the Battle of Utoy Creek and during the “Siege” of Atlanta, it was used a Union hospital.
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Utoy Church, now known as Temple of Christ Pentecostal Church, is one of the oldest Churches in Fulton Co. as is its cemetery.  It was established in 1824 and moved to this location in 1828.  Heavily remodeled and with multiple additions, it still stands where it did in 1828.  During the battles that took place around Atlanta, it was used as a hospital.  During the Battle of Utoy Creek it was again used as a hospital and the Confederate defensive lines crossed the property in the north west corner.
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When I visited the Church and Cemetery on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Utoy Creek, I found that someone had placed new Confederate flags at the headstones of the unknown soldiers that had died here during the battle.  Being such an old cemetery, there are grave markers indicating the graves of soldiers who served as far back as the Revolutionary war and the Spanish American War.
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While I am sure there were other Jewish Confederate soldiers, this was the only Jewish Confederate grave stone that I came across in my nearly year long journey following Sherman through Georgia.  I have been in a great many cemeteries along the way and seen many Confederate graves, but this was a first.
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Greenwood Cemetery.  The Confederate lines that extended south west of the Atlanta’s inner defensive line, crossed through the high ground and hills inside what is now Greenwood Cemetery.  Clayton’s Division of General S. D. Lee’s Corps(CS) was positioned along this line.  They were located to the right of Bate’s Division and were engaged in skirmishing with the Federal 14th Corps(US) Commanded by General Johnson.
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Just inside the wood line of the western part of Greenwood Cemetery you can find remnants of the Confederate earthworks that were manned by Clayton’s Division(CS) and who repulsed a halfhearted attack by the Federal 14th Corps(US).  My ancestors who were in the 42nd Ga. in Stovall’s Brigade were positioned in this area.
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 Remains of the Confederate line the extended south and west from Atlanta’s inner defensive line to protect the railroad in East Point.  These works are located in a wooded part of John A. White Park.

The Battle of Utoy Creek

August 5th, 1864:

The conflict between General’s Sherman, Palmer and Schofield continued throughout the day.  Palmer sent multiple letters arguing back and forth with Sherman.  Palmer’s final letter said “I will call upon you tomorrow morning and present a formal application to be relieved.”  While they bickered back and forth, Federal units were still trying to get in line for the move toward East Point.  For the remainder of the day Palmer agrees to relay orders from Schofield to his XIV Corps.  Baird’s Division advances south toward Utoy Creek and encounter the Confederate skirmishers.  They take about 140 prisoners.  They then turn towards the east and encounter an artillery barrage.  They decide not to advance and assault the Confederate works as they assume they will be repulsed.  Davis brings his division up along side Baird’s and comes to halt as well.  Schofield is not happy about the assault coming to a halt.  He orders Johnson’s Division of Palmer’s Corps to swing around the right and attack the Confederate left flank.  Johnson waits until early evening to begin his movement, which he calls a “reconnaissance”.  He moved a short distance and then calls it off since it is too late in the day to do much good.  He falls back to the rear of Davis.  Schofield and Sherman are both displeased with the performance of Palmer’s XIV Corps.  Palmer will resign in the morning and for a time Johnson will command the XIV Corps.

During the night of the 5th, Hood orders the defensive lines extended further south and west to protect the railroad in East Point.  The line extended about 1.25 miles from the existing defensive lines, down a ridge line the paralleled the Sandtown Road (Cascade Road), and overlooked the North Fork of Utoy Creek.  The far left of the line ended in the area of the current Cascade Springs Nature Preserve.

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Looking north along the bike path in Lionel Hampton – Beecher Hills Park.  Cox’s Division of Schofield’s 23rd Corps (US) established their lines on the ridge line at the top of the hill in the distance.
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Portion of Federal earthworks manned by Cox’s Division.
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A fairly long stretch of earthworks occupied by Cox’s Division of Schofield’s 23rd Corps (US) inside Lionel Hampton – Beecher Hills Park.
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A dead tree lies across the remnants of Federal earthworks of Cox’s Division.  The log helps demonstrate the depth of the remaining earthworks that are tucked away in the forest of Lionel Hampton – Beecher Hills Park.

The Battle of Atlanta

July 22, 1864

After an arduous night march of 16 miles, Hardee’s Corps was getting into position on the Federal left flank.  The attack that was supposed to begin at dawn, but was delayed due to the distance of the night march and then further delayed when Walker’s and Bate’s Divisions had to work around the swampy terrain at Terry’s Mill Pond.  Just after 12:00pm, Hardee ordered Walker and Bate to attack the Federal left flank.  Bate’s Division was on the Confederate right, east of Sugar Creek and Walker’s Division was on the west side of Sugar Creek.  As Walker’s Division made their way past the mill pond, Walker moved to the front of his lines to see what lay ahead of his column.  As he raised his field glasses, a round from a Federal sharpshooter killed him instantly.  After the disarray and confusion that followed, Brig. Gen. H. W. Mercer assumed command of the Division and carried out the attack.  Walker fell near the intersection of Glenwood Ave. and Wilkinson Dr.  A monument dedicated to his memory stands there today.

The Federals that Walker and Bate were attacking were elements of the 2nd and 4th Divisions of Dodge’s XVI Corps.  They were entrenched in the area of Memorial Drive and Clay Street.  With part of the line extending into what is now Alonzo Crim High School.  This was a tactically advantageous position on high ground overlooking Sugar Creek valley.  They were also supported by several artillery batteries.

Cleburne’s and Maney’s Divisions had moved up Flat Shoals Road and were heading toward the left flank of the Federals that were entrenched along Flat Shoals in the area between Glenwood and the intersection of I-20 and Moreland (Bald Hill, aka Leggett’s Hill).  They attacked the left flank of Blair’s XVII Corps that was held by Smith’s 4th Division.  Cleburne’s attack was fast and furious.  His troops drove the Federals back to the north to Bald Hill and in the process they captured eight cannons and the entire 16th Iowa Infantry Regiment.

During this time, General McPherson was riding toward Dodge’s Corps to asses the situation and was traveling on a ridge line (McPherson Ave.) trying to find a way to close the gap between Logan and Blair.  The Confederates were flooding into the gap in McPherson’s lines, and as McPherson searched for a way to close the gap, he was shot and killed by the attacking Confederates.  One of McPherson’s aides was with him, and when the shots rang out, his horse took off and slammed into a tree, thus breaking his watch at 2:02pm, the time of McPherson’s death.

Late in the afternoon, Hood, who was observing the battle from a house adjacent to what is now Oakland Cemetery, ordered his former Corps, now commanded by Cheatham, to attack the Federal front.  Cheatham’s Corps left their works and moved east toward the Federal line.  The right of Cheatham’s Corps was attacking Bald Hill from the west and Maney’s Division of Hardee’s Corps was attacking from the south west.  Even with their combined effort, they were unable to push the Federals off of Bald Hill.  On Cheatham’s left, Clayton and Brown’s divisions were more successful.  Manigault’s Brigade of Brown’s Division, used the cover of a deep railroad cut in the area of the current Inman Park Marta Station and the CSX railroad.  They came under artillery fire, but were able to out flank the battery and capture the guns.  This action broke the Federal line and Manigault wheeled to the left and began to “roll up” the Federal line.  He captured 8 cannons in the process, four of which were 20 pounder Parrott rifles.  Stovall’s Brigade, which was aligned to the left of Manigault, was attacking the Degress Battery (located off of Battery Place) from the front when Manigault hit the flank.  As the line broke, soldiers from both Brigades stormed the works and captured the battery.  The 42nd Ga. Volunteers, who were part of Stovall’s Brigade, took part in this assault.

General Sherman, who was observing the battle from the Augustus Hurt house at the present day Carter Library, witnessed the Confederate assault that broke part of the lines of Logan’s XV Corps.  He personally directed artillery fire from five concentrated batteries, toward the attacking Confederates.  He had the artillery rounds falling to their front to prevent them from moving forward and attacking, as well as toward their rear to prevent reinforcements from supporting the assault.  This artillery fire and a Federal counter attack of eight Brigades, pushed the Confederates back to their works and restored the Federal line.

Hood had also dispatched General Wheeler and his Cavalry to Decatur to attack McPherson’s wagon train.  Wheeler found several regiments of Federal infantry posted south of Decatur.  At 1:00pm, Wheeler dismounted two of his divisions and assaulted the Federals.  He pushed them north across what is now Agnes Scott College and then across the railroad tracks to the Decatur Square.  The wagon train was detoured from Decatur after Wheeler started his assault.  Wheeler pushed the Federals through the square and through the old city cemetery.  The Federals then formed a new line along what is now North Decatur Road.  Before Wheeler could attack the new Federal line, he was recalled back to Atlanta to support the attack on Bald Hill.

The battle was over by the time darkness had fallen, the Confederates had returned to their works and had suffered nearly twice the number of casualties as the Federals.  The Federals reformed their lines and will shortly begin the “Siege of Atlanta”.

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After receiving the order from General Hardee (CS) to attack, General W. Walker commanding his division of Hardee’s Corps rode to the front of his lines to observe the terrain and deploy his troops in Sugar Creek Valley.  He was shot off his horse and killed by a Federal picket.  General Mercer assumed command and continued the attack.
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Sugar Creek Valley:  Bate’s Division of Hardee’s Corps(CS) was deployed on this, the eastern side of Sugar Creek and Walker’s Division, now commanded by Mercer, was deployed to the western side of the creek.  They advanced up the low valley to assault the federal lines along present day Memorial Drive and Clay Street.  The Dekalb Memorial Park now occupies what is left of Sugar Creek Valley.
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Alanzo A. Crim High School now occupies the spot where the Blodgett’s Missouri Battery H was positioned in the Federal lines that were occupied by Federal troops from Rice’s and Mersey’s Brigades of Sweeny’s Division(US).  Rice’s Brigade was facing east and engaged with Bate’s Division as they moved up the east side of Sugar Creek and Mersey’s Brigade was facing south and bearing the brunt of the assault from Walkers Division(commanded by Mercer).
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The Federal lines of Rice’s Brigade were positioned on this high ground here at Memorial Drive near Clay street.  They were facing east, toward the camera position, and were engaged with Bate’s Division (CS)
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While Bate’s and Walker’s Division’s constituted the right flank of Hardee’s assault on the Federal lines, Maney’s and Cleburne’s Divisions were the left flank.  Maney’s Brigades advanced on the Federal lines and moved through what is now Brownwood Park, to assault the Federals on the high ground just north of Flat Shoals Rd.
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Cleburne’s Division was advancing on the west side of Flat Shoals Rd, to the right of Maney’s Division, when they encountered the far left of the Federal flank.  Cleburne’s men were able to turn the Federal left, General Smith Division, and then were able to assault the rear of the Federal lines to their west.  In the process of that assault, Cleburne’s troops were able to capture eight artillery pieces that belonged to the 2nd Illinois and 2nd U.S. Artillery.
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With an attack on two sides, General Smith(US), fell back with his Division under heavy fire.  They made a retrograde movement to form a line on the east flank of Bald Hill, also called Leggett’s Hill.  Leggett’s hill once occupied the intersection of I-20 and Moreland Ave.  The fighting here was fierce, with the Leggett’s Division and what was left of Smith Division, taking fire on their position from their front, their left flank, and their rear.
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In the late morning, just before the noon start to the Confederate attack, General McPherson, along with Generals Logan and Blair, as well as their staff officer, stopped for lunch.  They stopped in a grove of oak trees on the south side of the rail road near the location of Whitfoord Ave and La France.  After finishing their meal and sending a dispatch to General Dodge to destroy the rail road, the generals heard the first shots of the Confederate assault.  Logan and Blair rode off to command their respective corps and McPherson and his staff road towards the sound of the gun fight.  While moving along what is now McPherson Ave., General McPherson was shot and killed by Confederates of Cleburne’s Division as they exploited a gap in the Federal lines.  This image is of reenactors at a memorial service on the 150th anniversary of the Generals death.
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Several hours after the main Confederate assault by Hardee’s Corps(CS), General Hood(CS), threw Cheatham’s Corps into the attack and thus extended the Confederate line of attack further north and across the railroad.  Here in this images is Edgewood Ave. Clayton’s Brigade of Cheatham’s Corps(CS) moved east through here to attack the Federal positions at the Troup Hurt House. 
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Dekalb Ave. at the Inman Park Marta Station.  Here, Manigault’s and Sharp’s Brigades of Brown’s Division Cheatham’s Corps (CS) moved east on the north side of the rail road tracks to assault the Federal lines.  Sharp’s Brigade was able to exploit the cover provided by the deep railroad, where the Marta station now sits, and push through the small gap in the Federal lines where he wheeled to the right to attack the Federal flank south of the railroad and capture 2 artillery pieces of Battery A 1st Illinois Artillery.  Manigault wheeled to the left and captured the 4 remaining guns of the battery and continued to move north up the Federal line.  The Federal line broke and Manigault along with Stovall’s Brigade were able to continue the assault.
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This old stone church, now a private residence, sits on the site of the Troup Hurt House.  This site was a land mark on the battlefield and the site of the Federal lines as well as the four 20 pounder Parrott rifles of the Degress Battery H, 1st Illinois Artillery.  Manigault’s along with Stovall’s Brigade, were able to break the Federal lines here and capture the Degress Battery.  They were able to hold the position for some time before they too were routed out by a Federal counter attack.
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General Hood(CS) was the commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee and upon ordering Cheatham’s Corps to attack the Federal lines, he took up a position on the second floor of the Williams home, to watch the battle unfold.  The Williams home once stood in this area of what is now Oakland Cemetery.
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The Carter Center now sits where the Augustus Hurt House once stood.  This was the location of General Sherman’s headquarters during the Battle of Atlanta.  Generals Howard and Schofield also made their command post here as well.  After his death, General McPherson’s body was brought here before being send back to Ohio for burial.  From here, Sherman ordered a counter attack on the Confederates and personally directed artillery fire against the Confederates in the area of the Troup Hurt House.
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As part of the Federal counter attack, Logan’s 15th Corps(US), moved west astride the railroad.  Here, just on the south side of the railroad at Moreland Ave. and Caroline st., Lightburn’s Brigade advanced west toward the area of the Troup Hurt House.
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Dekalb Ave. at Moreland Ave.  Upon establishing their lines in the area of the Troup Hurt House and the railroad cut just west of this location, the Federals set up a signal station in a large pine tree in this location.  After the Federal lines broke, the station was abandoned and when the Federal counter attack was successful, the station was put back in to use. 

July 21st, 1864

July 21, 1864:

Heavy fighting took place along the eastern approach to Atlanta.  Wheeler’s Cavalry were engaged with Blair’s XVII Corps along area near Moreland Ave.  Cleburne was in a desperate fight with Leggett’s 3rd Division of Blair’s XVII Corps, for control of “Bald Hill”.  A prominent hill within artillery range of the city.  Now located at Moreland and I-20, most of the hill, now called “Leggett’s Hill”, is gone due to the construction of I-20.

After his defeat at the Battle of Peachtree Creek on the 20th, Hood has started shifting his forces further to the east in an effort to engage McPherson and Schofield.  In an attempt to attack McPerson’s left flank and his rear, he sends Hardee on a 16 mile long night march heading south and east to link up with Cleburne and assault the Federal flank east of Atlanta.  Hardee begins his marches down Peachtree Street near Peachtree and Spring St.  He heads south through Five Points and turn in a south easterly direction and moved to a point near the north side of the South River.  Here he turned up the Fayetteville Road and the move onward to Bouldercrest Road.  As he turned north on Bouldercrest he reached a fork in the road and divided his forces, with Cleburne’s and Maney’s Divisions taking Bouldercrest to Flat Shoals Road and then Walker and Bate’s Divisions moving up the Fayetteville Road.

Two divisions of Wheeler’s Cavalry, after roughly an hours rest from the days intense fighting, are sent way around the Federal left flank in an attempt to reach the Federal rear in Decatur and destroy the McPherson’s wagon trains.

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WSB TV, site of Atlanta’s Outer Defenses.  After a failed assault at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hardee’s Corps fell back to the position where they started their assault and after a hard day of fighting, they moved from their works and mustered a couple hundred yards away near Preachtree St. and Spring St. to being their 16 mile long forced night march.
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After marching down Peachtree st. and through 5 points, Hardee’s Corps continued to march south down Capitol Ave. and onto what is not Hank Aaron Dr, passing the location of Turner field, were Confederate Artillery batteries were once positioned.
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Hardee’s Corps continued to march down Hank Aaron Dr, which was then called McDonough Blvd.  They would have marched down the road to camera right and made a left turn, then marched toward the camera.
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McDonough Blvd. at Jonesboro Rd.  The march continued down McDonough Blvd. taking the left fork to stay headed east.
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Hardee continued marching further and further into the night attempting to be in position by dawn, but march, consisting of close to 18,000 soldiers, was painfully slow.  They would have passed through the area of the Federal Penitentiary.
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McDonough Blvd. at Moreland Ave.  Hardee’s soldiers marched along this road and turned right on to what is now Moreland Ave and marched south to a point near the south river.
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The Starlight Drive In, a local landmark, now sits to the side of a road where Hardee’s Corps passed in the late night and early morning hours of July 21st – 22nd.
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After marching to a point just north of the South River, Hardee turned his troops north up Fayetteville Road. 
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At dawn on the 22nd of July, 1864, Hardee’s Column stopped here at Intrenchment Creek.  Here once stood the home and mill of WM Cobb.  Hardee needed local guides for the remainder of his march as he and his officers were not familiar with the area.  Mr. Cobb and his Miller, named Case Turner, agreed to guide Hardee’s columns to positions for their attack on the Federal left flank.  Now a water treatment plant occupies the site.
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After continuing on from Intrenchment Creek, the column marched on Fayetteville road (now Key Rd) to the intersection with Bouldercrest Road and turned left.  They continued up Bouldercrest Road to the fork with Fayetteville Road.  With Cleburne’s and Maney’s Divisions taking the left fork (Bouldercrest Rd) and moved up to Flat Shoals Rd where they eventually assaulted the Federals in the area of Bald Hill.  The right fork (Fayetteville Rd.) was taken by Walker and Bate’s divisions.

 

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Terry’s Mill Pond.  Case Turner guided Walker and Bate’s Divisions up the Fayetteville Rd. to Sugar Creek.  At this point, against the advise of Mr. Turner, Walker’s Division turned north and moved off the road to travel up the west side of the creek and Bate’s followed suit moving up the east side of the creek.  Mr. Turner warned them of the difficult and swampy terrain around Tom Terry’s Mill pond.  Their advance was significantly delayed due to this obstacle.  The mill pond is gone now, but one existed in the low ground inside this tree line.  A community garden now exist on this site at the intersection of Terry Mill Rd and Glenwood Rd.
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Glenwood and I-20.  The northern end of Terry’s Mill Pond was near this point and in the trees to camera left.  The main assault of the Confederates began from this area at 12:15pm.  As the assault was to begin, General Walker moved up to the front of his Division to survey the terrain.  As he brought his field glasses up to his eyes, he was shot dead by a Federal Sharpshooter. 

 

The Battle of Peachtree Creek

July 20th, 1864:

As Hood prepares for his first tactical engagement since taking command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, he is hoping that General Thomas’s Army of the Cumberland has been unable to prepare any earthworks since crossing Peachtree Creek.  Hood is also having to keep an eye on McPherson and Schofield as they advance from Decatur toward Atlanta.  The attack is planned for 1:00pm, but for various reasons it does not commence until 4:00pm.

Hood has deployed Stewart’s Corps (formerly commanded by the late Lt. Gen. L. Polk) to his left.  Stewart’s Corps consist of French’s Division on the far left connecting to the Western and Atlantic Railroad near Casey’s Hill in the current Crestlawn Cemetery and extending east and connecting to Walthall’s Division, which sits astride Howell Mill Road.  Walthall’s right extends toward the east and connects with Loring’s Division between Howell Mill and Northside Drive.  Hood had deployed Hardee’s Corps to the center.  Hardee had placed Maney’s Division to the left of his line followed by Walker’s Division in the center and Bate’s Division to the right.  Hardee held Cleburne’s Division in reserve.  Hood, fearing an attack by McPherson on the east side of Atlanta, placed Cheatham on the far right of the Confederate line.  Cheatham is commanding Hood’s former Corps.  Hood’s plan is to attack “en echelon”.  Starting with Bate’s Division on the right attacking first and then each subsequent Division attacking one after the other.  This was done in an effort to turn the enemy flank and push them back to Peachtree Creek and the Chattahoochee River.

Thomas had most of his army across the creek by noon.  Palmer’s XIV Corps had been placed on the right and had been able to entrench as they had been across the creek earlier.  Hooker’s XX Corps was forming up in the center and Howard’s IV Corps was forming on the left.  Newton’s Division of Howard’s Corps held the far left.

Late in the morning Hood received word from Wheeler, who commanded the cavalry attempting to hold the east side of Atlanta, that he was out numbered by McPherson and Schofiled who were moving toward the Atlanta from Decatur.  Hood decided to shift his entire army to the east by a mile in order to support Wheeler should he need it.  The orders were given and the movements were made, but through miscommunication and human error the shift to the right (east) was nearly two miles.  This cost the Confederates time and delayed their attack until 4pm.

When the attack finally began, Bate’s Division was the first to move forward and should have been the first to make contact, but the terrain in their front had not been reconnoitered prior to the assault.  Because of this they did not know where they were going and did not know where the enemy was.  They ran into a heavy thicket and swampy area that greatly hindered their progress as they were attempting to find Newton’s Division.

By 4:30pm the “en echelon” advance had made its way down the line to Loring’s Division.  In the area between present day Northside Drive and Walthall Street, Scott’s Brigade of Loring’s Division made one of the most successful assaults of the day.  They captured the colors of the 33rd New Jersey as well as part of the regiment.  They continued pressing their assault and nearly turn Geary’s flank, but the lack of support on either of Scott’s flanks, forced him to fall back.

The day was filled with heavy, fierce fighting on both sides.  By late afternoon, Loring believed he could exploit a gap in the Federal lines between Newton and Geary.  He asked Hardee for reinforcements and as Hardee was about to send Cleburne’s Division to assist Loring, he received an order from Hood to send a Division to the east of the city to support Wheeler.  Hardee sent Cleburne’s Division to Wheeler, thus preventing another push forward to the Federal lines.  The day ended with many dead, dying and wounded still on the battlefield.  The high priced neighborhoods of the area now stand in stark contrast to the harsh reality of the battle that took place there 152 years ago today.

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Knipe’s and Robinson’s Brigades of William’s Division of Hooker’s 20th Corps, were positioned along the high ground to the right of this image taken along Norfleet Rd.  To the left of the image is a deep ravine that had to be traversed by the attacking Confederates.  This area was the western most portion of the Federal line that came under direct assault during the Battle of Peachtree Creek.
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This deep ravine now sits between Norfleet Rd. to the right, where the Federals were positioned on high ground, and Springlake Dr.  Reynold’s Brigade of Walthall’s Division of Stewart’s Corp(CS) attacked through this deep ravine and pushed forward attempting to push Knipe’s and Robinson’s Brigades back.  After a failed second attempt under enfilading artillery fire and with only the support part of Selden’s Alabama Battery, Reynold’s was forced to withdraw from the assault.
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Near the intersection of Collier Road and Howell Mill, at the south western end of the ravine, the Selden’s Alabama Battery was placed in support of Reynold’s assault.  While directing the placement of the battery Major William C. Preston was killed in action by Federal fire. Major Preston is the “Willie” Preston featured in Mary Chestnut’s “A Diary From Dixie”
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Bobby Jones Golf Course at the Bittsy Grant Tennis Center.  The right of Geary’s Division of Hooker’s 20th Corps was positioned along the high ground of this ridge on the golf course.  O’Neal’s Brigade of Wathall’s Division(CS) was on the right of Reynold’s Brigade and pushed through at shallower portion of the ravine and attempted to exploit a gap between Williams and Geary.  Geary’s line was pushed back until his right met Williams left forming a re-entrant angle in the Federal line.  O’Neal split the Brigade with half swinging left to attack Williams and the other half swinging right to turn Geary’s right flank.  Fierce fighting ensued and with lack of numbers and artillery support, O’Neal eventually withdrew.
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Bittsy Grant Tennis Center.  Looking toward the Confederate lines.  O’Neal’s Brigade would have crossed this area in their assault on Geary’s and Williams lines.
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Tanyard Creek Park, a historian and reenactor gives a lecture to a tour group on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Peachtree Creek.  General Loring’s Division of Stewarts Corps(CS), came across this ground moving from the background toward the camera position to attack elements of Geary’s and Ward’s Divisions (US), which were positioned behind the camera on the high ground near present day Collier Rd.
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Tanyard Branch in Tanyard Branch Park.  Heavy fighting ensued here as Loring’s Division(CS) pushed hard in their attack on elements of Geary’s and Ward’s Division’s(US).
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Eastern portion of Tanyard Creek Park.  Portions of Featherston’s Brigade, Loring’s Division (CS), advanced through this area, crossing the creek (camera right),under heavy fire from Geary’s (US) artillery and moving towards the high ground along present day Collier Road. 
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Ardmore Road looking toward Collier Road.  The right of Featherston’s Brigade advanced down the slope for their trenches nearly a mile behind the camera position, to attack Coburn’s and Wood’s Brigades of Ward’s Divison  (US).  Featherston’s Brigade drove back the Federal skirmishers and pushed passed the barricades the skirmishers used to assault the main line.  They gained some ground but were forced back to the abandoned barricades as they were counter attacked along their front and flank.
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28th St. at Wycliff Rd. looking toward’s Peachtree Street.  28th St. dead ends into Ardmore where the previous image was made.  The Old Montgomery Ferry Road crossed through this spot and intersected Peachtree Road slightly south of Palisades Rd.  Brig. General Clement H. Stevens (CS) was killed in action here as he ordered the withdraw of his Brigade.  Steven’s Brigade was part of Walker’s Division of Hardee’s Corps.
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Battle of Peachtree Creek memorial.  This memorial, shaded by Oaks and Magnolias, rest on a small knoll between Peachtree Road and Piedmont Hospital.  Kimball’s Brigade of Newton’s Division, Howard’s 4th Corps (US) was positioned here on this high ground astride Peachtree Road.  They were assaulted by Walker’s Divisions of Hardee’s Corps (CS).
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Dale Way Park now sits on the battlefield once crossed by Bate’s Division of Hardee’s Corps (CS).  Bate’s Division was the far right of the Confederate assault on the Federal lines at Peachtree Creek.  Bate’s was the first to move from his works to begin the assault with each successive Division move forward one after the other.  Bate’s assault was delayed as the whole Confederate line had been shifted to the right by nearly two miles.  Initially, the line was supposed to move only a mile to the right in order to be in position to reinforce Wheeler’s Cavalry east of Atlanta should McPherson and Schofield attack.  Miscommunication lead to shift of two miles and as such, when Bate’s made his advance on two Brigades of Newton’s Division (US), he did so across terrain that had not been reconnoitered.  Bate’s advance was slow due to heavy thickets and swampy areas in the Clear Creek Valley.
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WSB TV, West Peachtree St. near Inwood Cir.  The Confederates outer defensive line of Atlanta was placed on the high ground here and extended westward along various hills and ridges to present day Crest Lawn Cemetery where it terminated at Casey’s Hill along the Western Atlantic Railroad.  Walker and Bate’s Divisions both started their assault on the Federals from this defensive line.  This view is looking south toward the Confederate line.
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West Peachtree at Inwood Cir.  WSB TV.  Looking north toward Federal Positions from the Confederates outer defensive line of Atlanta.  Walker’s and Bate’s Divisions(CS) would have advanced down this slope crossing the area that is now Buford Hwy and I-85 and then moving up through what is now the Brookwood Hills neighborhood, to assault part of Newton’s Division (US) that were positioned along the high ground in the area of present day Brighton Road.

Death of the Fighting Bishop

June 14th, 1864

Being concerned that the position of Bate’s Division on Pine Mountain was quickly becoming compromised, Confederate Generals Johnston, Polk and Hardee, rode to the top of the mountain on the morning of the 14th.  As the Generals were inspecting the position, they were observed by members of a Federal artillery battery located about a mile to the north east of the mountain.  This was the 5th Indiana Battery.  They observed what appeared to be officers on the mountain and opened fire.  The first round buried it’s self in the parapet of the Confederate position and the second round struck General Leonidas Polk in the chest killing him instantly.  Polk, also called the Bishop General was the Episcopal Bishop of Louisiana and was greatly revered by his men.  His death struck a serious blow to the Confederacy.

Later on the 14th, Federal forces attacked Pine Mountain in an attempt to cut it off from the main Brushy Mountain Lost Mountain line.  Pine Mountain formed a salient in the Confederate lines and was just over a mile to the north of the main line.  The Federals pushed hard to cut Pine Mountain off from their main line, but were repeatedly repulsed by the well entrenched and fortified positions of the Confederates of Bate’s Division.  General Johnston ordered Bate’s Division to with draw from the position on the night of the 14th under the cover of darkness.

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Location on top of Pine Mountain were General Leonidas Polk was fatal struck by an artillery round from the 5th Indiana Battery
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Remnants of the parapet the took the first round from the 5th Indiana Battery. 
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Earthworks atop Pine Mountain.  These were manned by Bate’s Division.

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Now located behind a church, this is the position of the 5th Indiana Battery that fired the fatal shot killing General Leonidas Polk.  It has been turned into a small nature trail for the church.
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Looking through the notch in the parapet wall of the 5th Indiana.  One of the artillery pieces would have fired through this notch in the wall.
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From the 150th anniversary memorial ceremony held on Pine Mountain, June 14th 2014.
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F.D.Polk IV, 3rd Great Grandson of the General Leonidas Polk was present at the memorial service.
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During the memorial service a reenactor was portraying a Reverend and presided over the memorial service.
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Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.

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Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.

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Surviving Confederate earthworks of Bate’s Division where they repulsed the Federal attack on June 14th along the base and slopes of Pine Mountain.